Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky developed the scaffolding theory. Scaffolding theory describes social and instructional support for students learning new concepts, comparable to structures erected alongside newly constructed buildings. The scaffolding supports the construction (the introduction of new material) and is taken away after completion (or when the lesson is understood.)
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky proposed that learning depended on the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which he defined as "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem-solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers."
Within the ZPD
Vygotsky believed students must be taught information within their ZPD to develop a relationship with the material, then the scaffolding must be taken away to fully form an understanding.
If a task seemed outside the student
s abilities with and without the scaffolding, it was the instructors responsibility to seek a challenging task still within the student`s ZPD.
Vygotsky`s scaffolding stood apart from other theories of the time in its inclusion of social interaction as a necessity in learning.
Assigning tasks that are likely intriguing to the student and sessions designed to enrich cognitive and social skills are typical of advanced scaffolding.