The geranium, a favourite indoor-outdoor garden flower, is believed to symbolise unity and true friendship. Different colours and varieties of geranium flower are linked with varied symbolic meanings.
Geranium flowers' symbolic meanings range from true friend and gentility, to stupidity, melancholy, folly and meeting. Generally, geraniums are a sign of a peaceful mind, conveying a sense of gentility.
The word "geranium" is derived from the Greek source "geranion" or "geranos," meaning crane. It's the common name for evergreen perennials used as bedding plants. The Greek genus refers to the flower stem's craning neck or sometimes the shape of geranium seed-heads, which resemble a crane's bill.
The geraniums to which we refer when speaking of the popular house and garden plant are of the genus Pelargonium, which includes more than 200 species, many originating in South Africa.
Historically, the wild geranium was associated with steadfast piety. Pink or rose geraniums symbolised preference and the oak-leaved geranium signified true friendship, according to "A Contemplation Upon Flowers: Garden Plants in Myth and Literature" by Bobby J. Ward, published in 1999.
The scarlet geranium is considered a sign of comfort or consolation.
Geraniums' range of colours include white, pink, salmon, red, lavender and fuchsia. Some have more than one colour. Among the many types grown are "single-flowering" and "double-flowering" geraniums: Flowers of the former have five or fewer petals; flowers of the latter have 10 or more petals. Leaves can be variegated green and white, plain green or patterned with mixes of orange, red and yellow.
Geranium fragrances vary widely and include peppermint, nutmeg, rose, pineapple and citrus notes of lemon, lime or orange. Geraniums have been cultivated for the aromatic oils---from leaves as well as flowers---used in perfumes and flavours.