How Does a Residential Well Water Filtration System Work?

Written by david hart
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How Does a Residential Well Water Filtration System Work?
Well water filtration systems remove the largest contaminants first. (water drop is falling down and impact with water surface image by Alexander Potapov from Fotolia.com)

If you get your water from a residential well, understanding how a well water filtration system works will help you determine if it can benefit your family's home. The main function of a house water filter is to reduce contaminants and leave the water healthy and safe. A residential well water filtration system works as water passes through different filter media.

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Function

Unlike a home that gets its water from a city or municipal water supply, a well source faces different contaminants because the water is untreated. A well water filtration system is designed first to filter out heavy contaminants before removing smaller ones. This largest-to-smallest filtration method prevents clogging and extends the life of the system.

Prefilter

As the name suggests, well water filtration prefilters go before the main unit on the house's water line. These cartridges are also called sediment prefilters and are capable of filtering out contaminants that are larger than 5 to10 microns, depending on the system. The cartridges can effectively block larger particulates like sediment, iron oxides (rust water) and hydrogen sulphide (which gives off the rotten egg smell).

KDF Filter

KDF or kinetic degradation fluxion is a type of filter media in well water filtration systems that reduces smaller contaminants than those captured by the prefilter. During this stage, a blend of zinc and copper granules cause an electrochemical reaction. Electrons are removed from certain dangerous contaminants, which turns them into harmless substances. KDF is highly effective at reducing heavy metals and microbiological contaminants.

Granular Activated Carbon Filter

The final stage for well water filtration occurs when water passes through granular activated carbon (GAC). A GAC filter is often composed of bituminous coal or a coconut shell medium. It does an excellent job of absorbing impurities because there is significant contact time between the carbon and water. This stage is important when wells are shallow and are more easily contaminated with metals and pesticides.

Considerations

A residential well water filtration system works best when each different filter media is made of high-quality materials. The order of the stages that the water passes through is also critical. Proper water flow that removes gradually smaller particulates is the best method. Occasionally, a home well water treatment system will be ineffective due to excessive iron, manganese or hydrogen sulphide content. If this happens, you can upgrade or add a new filtration technology to keep it working effectively.

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