According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), it is estimated that approximately half of the U.S. population has some sort of intestinal disorder that can be attributed to diet. Americans are known to eat less fibre, which can be a contributing factor to the intestinal disorders.
What is the Sigmoid?
The lower portion of the human large intestine is referred to as the sigmoid colon. MedicineNet.com explains that the sigmoid colon is shaped like an "s"---curving in two directions.
Diverticular disease consists of two types---diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Both are denoted by an inflammation in the lining of the sigmoid colon. The University of Maryland Medical Center explains that diverticulitis can spread to other areas of the body such as the abdominal lining. Common side effects of sigmoid swelling include abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, nausea and vomiting as well as fever and gas.
A tortuous sigmoid colon, also referred to as a "redundant" colon, is one that is longer than it should be. If it manages to become twisted because of its elongation, it can begin to cause blockages. The condition is known to cause severe cramps, gas and bloating as well as stools that are not always regular.
Colonic volvulus is the twisting of the colon upon itself, which often results in obstruction. The condition usually requires medical intervention for correction. When this happens in the area of the sigmoid colon, it is referred to as sigmoid volvulus. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reports that it is within the area of the sigmoid colon that the twisting is most common. Some common symptoms of the condition are fever, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) can affect either the entire colon or an isolated area of the colon. Left-sided colitis affects the left side of the colon and includes the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. According to eHealthmd.com, the condition causes "flare-ups" to occur which often result in inflammation, ulcerations, bloody diarrhoea fever and abdominal pain. A medication known as sulfasalazine, a sulfa medication, is most commonly used to treat the condition.